Thursday, January 30, 2020
China Trade from Early 17th Century to Mid 19th Century Essay Around 17th and 18th century, Western countries were extremely eager to reach the profitable Chinese market due to its privileged geological location. Although China had traded their riches with Europe along the Silk Road for centuries, Chinese government were afraid that the sea trade to the south would potentially corrupt their Ã¢â¬Å"imperial kingdomÃ¢â¬ and further try to conquer the country. From 1700 onwards, the government established a set of rigid restrictions imposing the practice of Co-hong to confine foreign trades and merchants in Canton. However, by late 18 century, the trading system seemed to change. The British commenced the opium trade, which created a steady demand among Chinese addicts and further solved the chronic imbalanced trade. As the Opium War broke out with Britain, China was no longer on the top of the world. The Celestial Empire not only was forced to be subservient to British trading regulations, but also somewhat became a semi-colonial country. The East India Company founded in 1600 that held a monopoly in east India by the British government was rapidly enlarging its global trading influence in China. By sending a company trader to address their concern regarding to the unreasonable restrictions on trade in Canton, the representative James Flint was arrested and imprisoned for being breaking the Ã¢â¬Å"Canton trading lawÃ¢â¬ . This incident showed ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s superior attitude toward Westerners and how they manipulated the trade irrationally in their best interest disregarding the concerns of foreign traders. The growing number of foreign traders in the late eighteenth century strongly threatened the Qing. They feared that the trade with foreign merchants would give the opportunity for Westerners to corrupt China; therefore, a set of laws that was so called Ã¢â¬Å"Canton systemÃ¢â¬ was established. The system restricted all European trades to only one port Canton and foreign merchants were forbidden to abode in the city except trading season. Moreover, the Europeans had to obey the licensed Co-Hong merchants, of who were responsible for controlling the trading behavior in Canton. As a result, these complex and irksome rules created a tension between foreigners and Chinese merchants, British traders especially. In 1792, a British ambassador Lord George Macartney set sail to China hoping to seek the approval of the Qing Emperor to loosen some of the trading restrictions to the British traders. Yet, the letters to the Emperor was unreservedly rejected; the response was fairly disappointing. Emperor QianlongÃ¢â¬â¢s edicts to George III in response to McCartneyÃ¢â¬â¢s demands on English traders showed his arrogant and condescending attitude toward the British. Ã¢â¬Å"As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for you countryÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturers. (105 Cheng and Letz with Spence) Furthermore, in his second edict, he stated, Ã¢â¬Å" But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognize the ThroneÃ¢â¬â¢s principle to Ã¢â¬Å"treat strangers from afar with indulgenceÃ¢â¬ and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Ã¢â¬ (106 Cheng and Letz with Spence) He describes foreigners as Ã¢â¬Å"barbarians, which showed how he disrespected all Westerners and measured China as the most superior in the world; other countries would have obey Chinese Ã¢â¬Å"lawÃ¢â¬ . British viewed QingÃ¢â¬â¢s legal code as unreasonable and perceived the Chinese officials as obstinate governance, which further exasperated the existed tension between the two nations. Meanwhile, a network of opium was widely distributed throughout China. In order to pay for the tremendous demand of Chinese tea, silk and porcelain pottery in Europe, Britain and other European nations determined to import the one product which became the factor that corrupted the Imperial Empire: opium. Opium addiction level arose in a short period of time, which affected not only the imperial troop but also the governmental officials. Thus, Emperor Daoguang appointed Commissioner Lin to confiscate opium from English ships and refused to pay indemnity to the British traders. The efforts of the Qing dynasty to coerce the opium restraints resulted in the trading conflict, which had already existed for decades between Britain and China triggered the Opium War in 1840. Lord PalmerstonÃ¢â¬â¢s dispatch to the Emperor of China was a message to inform the Qing that Great Britain would no longer be submissive. The British government therefore has determined at once to send out a Naval and Military Force to the Coast of China to act in support of these demands, and in order to convince the Imperial Government that the British Government attaches the upmost importance to his matter, and that the affair is one which will not admit of delay. Ã¢â¬ (125 Cheng and Letz with Spence) The dispatc h simply showed the BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions to use force to protect its subjects in China, Canton in particular. After the damaging defeats in the war, the first unequal treaty, Treaty of Nanjing was signed after the War, which awakened China from its fantasy of superiority. In the Treaty, China opened several ports and exposed its markets to Western merchants, which turned the central kingdom into a semi-colonial country. Consequently, the role in the national economy had reversed. China was now forced to obey all the demands in the Treaty of Nanjing signed with the British. China was no longer the Ã¢â¬Å"Celestial EmpireÃ¢â¬ ; inversely, it was slowly sliding down from the top of the world.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Sweeney Todd is by no means a conventional musical; it takes several forms of music and theater and artfully places them together. Sondheim very effectively transports the audience back to Victorian England for a mad waltz with murder, mayhem...and meat pies. He also utilizes his skill as a choral composer to write some truly fascinating ensemble pieces accompanied by a very intricate plot with many elements carefully layered. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are several important thematic elements in this carefully written commentary on our society, and Sondheim makes good use of his music to accent not only the melodramatic plot, but these themes as well. For example, the song Ã¢â¬Å"Kiss MeÃ¢â¬ becomes an anthem for Anthony and Johanna and a symbol of their true love....they loved when they did not even know each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s names. Sweeney Todd may be a dark musical, but its construction lends well to light voices and an equally light orchestral style. Plot-wise, this show is rather light, the characters seem cartoonish and one-dimensional, especially Mrs. Lovett, Anthony, and Johanna, who appear to be little more than melodramatic character roles. Ironically, Mrs. Lovett, the absolute capitalist, is one of the showÃ¢â¬â¢s most complex characters. Mrs. Lovett is not merely some amoral witch out to make a fast dollar, she is a character driven by greed and love to keep Sweeney however she can. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion, the play gives an excellent example of captive innocence, and the loss of innocence that immediately follows. Sweeney is driven to murder, Mrs. Lovett bakes these people into pies, Johanna kills, Lucy is forced to become a Beggar and a whore, and nearly every major character experiences their own fall
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Research Proposal |Student Number: | PROVISIONAL TITLE |Coca Cola Vs Pepsi: how a competitive brand proliferation has determined their dominance in the global soft drink industry? | BACKGROUND | | |It is not a foreign notion that both Coca Cola and Pepsi have been competing with one another in the global soft drinks industry for many years.From the | |early stages, of both the drink brands development from 1910, when Pepsi took on Coca Cola in the American carbonated drinks market franchising 24 | |states. Too the current day in which Coca Cola this year celebrated, 84 years of being the official sponsors of the Olympic Games. As well as Pepsi | |wining the bid for sponsorship of the Superbowl halftime show once more; with last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s show being viewed by an estimated 114 million globally. 2] | | | |Their soda war has been raging for over a century. When Caleb Bradham created Pepsi in 1898, Coca Cola had already been incorporated for 6 years by Asa | |Candler who purchas ed John S Pembertons Coke recipe, and was selling a million gallons a year. By the time Pepsi had franchised 24 states; Coca Cola had | |established bottling plants in Cuba, Canada and Panama and understood the power of advertising. Ploughing large amounts of profits into marketing with | |DÃ¢â¬â¢Archy Advertising Company.Over the next 20 years Pepsi suffers two bankruptcies the first in 1923, the start of World War I (WWI). When government | |policies on sugar rationing left the company with no other viable option and Pepsi Cola was sold to Craven Holdings Corp. After two years the trademark | |went bust once again in 1931. Here though good fortune comes in the form of Loft Inc a candy store chain, with its intuitive president Charles G Guth; | |they initiate the first competitive pricing strategy between the two firms. Pepsi Cola introduced the 12 ounce bottle for 5 nickel in 1933.With profits | |rising Pepsi produces their first advertising campaign for radio and jukebox: Ã¢â¬ ËPepsi Cola Hits The Spot, Twelve Full Ounces ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s A Lot, Twice As Much For| |A Nickel, Too, Pepsi Cola Is The Drink For YouÃ¢â¬â¢. During this time Coca Cola has established bottling operations in Bordeaux, Paris, PhilippinesÃ¢â¬â¢ | |establishing a global distribution network of resources. Resulting in a huge group investment of $25 million persuaded by Ernest Woodruff who would become| |President of Coke in 1923. The investment spurs Coke to spread to Australia Norway and South Africa. | | |By 1959 Coke is now a registered trademark under the name of The Coca Cola Company, their first ever television commercial has been advertised and the | |companyÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution network crosses 100 countries and 1700 plants. From the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s onwards Pepsi have learnt from previous events and at the beginning | |of World War II (WWII) purchase a sugar plantation in Cuba to avoid disruption to business. They have also developed their products container to a can, a | |m ore progressive and modern aversion from the traditional heavy glass bottle.By 1959 Pepsi was now available in a 120 countries; differentiating their | |target market the youth nicknamed the Ã¢â¬ËsociablesÃ¢â¬â¢. At this point, for the first time both Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola are equals. In the sense they have | |established equally strong global distribution networks and have similar levels of assets. | | | |Albeit in 1960 Coca Cola was not complacent with sharing the lime light with Pepsi Cola, and initiates a merger acquiring Minute Maid Corporation in | |response.This causes a domino effect over the next few years with Coca Cola introducing Sprite and Diet Coke. Pepsi Cola merges with Mountain Dew adding | |to their trademark and then merging into the snacks industry with Frito Lay Inc creating PepsiCo Inc, as well as introducing Diet Pepsi. Both brands have | |continued to develop and expand. To this day The Coca Cola Company is consists of over 400 brands and Pepsi con sisting of 22 food and beverage | |brands. | | |Although Coca Cola and PepsiCo are prestige brands, they both remain global market powers in a vigorously competitive soft drinks industry, valued at total| |value US$30. 3bn by 2008. Their success is down too their strategic behaviour in response to changes in the market structure, changes in market demand | |and product development over the last 84 years. Both brands have practiced archetypal methods such as pricing strategies, mergers, product | |differentiation, in order to compete with one another for market dominance.To such an extent the market has developed into an oligopoly, in which they | |hold a large market share stifling other competition. This type of competition is discussed in great detail in the Journal of Economics and Management | |Strategy, where company strategic behavioural responses are explained by using various oligopoly competition theories such as Cournot, Bertrand competition| |and Pure strategy Nash equilibrium games. Some of the articles within the Journal are specific to Coca Cola and Pepsi, proving that my topic is both | |contemporary and relevant. 6] The journal also embarks on the effectiveness of constant research and development to maintain product differentiation in the| |market.  The journal contains articles relevant to the soft drinks industry and articles that can explain certain company actions like recipe | |patents. | | | |Coca Cola and PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s century long soda war can be analysed stage by stage, each brands reaction to the other is a carefully thought out plan in which the | |sole purpose is ultimately to overcome the rival brand last move in a continuingly competitive game. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES |The main objective of this piece of research is to examine the strategically competitive decisions made by both Coca Cola and Pepsi over the last 84 years;| |that have developed both brands into establishing themselves as significant pow ers in the global soft drinks industry. | | | |My aim is to go through both brands commercial history identifying key events and competitive moves, such as the first pricing strategy instigated by Pepsi| |in 1933, and Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s merger of Minute Maid in 1960.Using officially endorsed company literature to establish a thorough history since 1986 to the | |present day. Such texts as Ã¢â¬ËFor God, Country and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Popular Soft DrinkÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËPepsi 100 YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ | |and each corporations global web sites (www. pepsico. com/www. coca-cola. company. com) will be essential to collating a empirical investigation. | | |Once I have compiled a detailed history for both companies, it will be clear that there are certain strategies that have been used to increase either | |brands market power. I will use microeconomic theory with the aid of scholarly papers, journals and market records (some of which I have referenced in my | |background) to explain the reasoning behind instigating the strategies and why they were a success to either Coca Cola or Pepsi brand proliferation.I have| |already outlined briefly a few key implemented strategies in my background; the innovation of the Pepsi can, Nickel for a Nickel decade, Minute Maid | |Corporation merger, but there are other notable tactics. | | | |Each chapter will be based on an individual event or commercial decision which I will have identified after further investigation, with the chapters in a | |chronological order. In each chapter I will analyse the motive for the action, the economic strategy implemented and its direct effectiveness on the soft | |drinks industry.When concluding my research, I hope to have a synopsis of how; when the right strategy is applied in the right climate it can have a | |profound effect on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s demand and supply leading to increase in profits and market share too brand proliferation. Alth ough my research is | |focused on coca cola corporation and PepsiCo it may be prudent to research another leading corporation within the global soft drinks industry i. e. Nestle | |Sa or Suntory Holdings Ltd. An investigation may reveal a ype of industrial organisational strategy which has not been used in Coca Cola and Pepsis | |relationship. I could provide this strategy as a suggested forthcoming policy to deal with Coca Cola and Pepsis modern day feud such as the Olympic | |sponsorship dispute | REFERENCES |1. |Mark Pendegrast (2000). For God, Country and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Popular Soft | | |Drink. 2nd ed. US: TEXERE (Thomson Corporation). ix-621. | |2. |Stoddard (1997). Pepsi: 100 Years.US: General Publishing Group U. S. 1-208. | |3. |Dhar, Tirtha 1 ; Chavas, Jean-Paul 2 ; Cotterill, Ronald W 3 ; Gould, Brian W 4 . (2005). An econometric analysis of | | |brand-level strategic pricing between Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo. An econometric analysis of brand-level strategic | | |pricing between Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo. 14 (4), 905-932. | |4. |J. C. Louis and Harvey Z. Yazijian. (1980). The Cola Wars: The Story of the Global Corporate Battle Between the | | |Coca-Cola Company and Pepsico, Inc. Business History Review. 5 (04), 386-590. | |5. |Dube, Jean-Pierre. (2005). Product differentiation and mergers in the carbonated soft drink industry. Product | | |differentiation and mergers in the carbonated soft drink industry. Journal of economics and management strategy 14 | | |(4), 879-904. | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Kim Bhasin. (02/11/2011). COKE VS. PEPSI: The Amazing Story Behind The Infamous Cola Wars. Available: http://www. businessinsider. com/soda-wars-coca-cola-pepsi-history-infographic-2011-11? op=1. Last accessed 04/11/2012.  Sports Illustrated. (2012). Pepsi
Monday, January 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Have a Coke and a SmileÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A Coke is a Coke, and no amount of money can get you a better Coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the Cokes are the same, and all the Cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it.(Andy Warhol, 1975) Regardless of its corporate reputation, the organizational performance and its social responsibility of Coca-Cola makes it loved around the world. Ever since its creation in 1886 Coca-Cola has been a household brand known globally for generations of families. I have to mention, of all the cases researched this is my least favorite not only because of my childhood love for the product because the ethical issues in one way or another always manage to resolve themselves not before further tainting the reputation Coke worked so hard to obtain. Most times, whether an organization is innocent of an unethical act, it becomes secondary to the suspicion of the original act. Almost as if the court of public opinion has th e power to ruin the reputation of an organization based on an unfounded accusation. In spite of my loyalty after having ready the case, I do believe Coca-Cola to be flawed. The contamination scare in Belgium is a great example of a public relations nightmare. The slightest hint of impurity should have pushed Coca Cola into crisis management mode but they were slow to react, citing it a minor issue (Ferrell, Fraedrich, Ferrell, (2011). 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